Sunday, October 28, 2012

Dienekes' globe10 calculator : my results

Dienekes released a new calculator (K=10) and here is a brief analyzis of my own results.

For previous K7b results, see : Dienekes' K7b calculator : my results
For a description of 'globe10' : [DODECAD] 'globe10 calculator

My results :

  76.20%  Atlantic_Baltic   
  20.77%  Southern     
  1.05%  West_Asian  
  0.89%  South_Asian     
  0.87%  Amerindian         
  0.21%  Siberian 
  0.01%  East_Asian     
  0.00%  Australasian       
  0.00%  Palaeo_African     
  0.00%  Neo_African        

See the following spreadsheet for results for selected populations :

My individual results are rather similar to previous runs.

 - I am mostly made of a component which peaks in the Atlantic and Baltic (around 85%) and which was the main component of Upper Paleolithic hunter-gatherers, either in modern Gotland (Ajv52 and Ajv70) or in Mesolithic Iberia (Bra1 for La Braña in Asturias).

-  About 20% of my genetic variation is analyzed under the component dubbed "Southern" which peaks in the Middle-East (Arabia, ...) and in North Africa where it can amount for as far as 50% of autochtonous people's genetic variation.

That component was already present in Neolithic farmers such as Oetzi in the Italian Alps or Gok4 in southern Sweden. It undoubtedly originated from the Middle-East and hints to a mixing of aboriginal hunter-gatherer European people with agriculturalist migrants from the Near East.

The Basques (see the aforementioned spreadsheet) do show around 22-24% of "Southern" admixture whereas nearby neighbours who lived in Mesolithic times such as Bra1 do not show such admixture yet. What should it mean ? As far as these results are concerned, it means that the ancestors of Basque people were genetically affected by the wave of agriculturalist migrants who brought agriculture to Europe.

Modern-day Europeans all seem to mostly be a mix of old-stock European genes (dubbed "Atlantic-Baltic") and Middle-Eastern/trans-Mediterranean genes (dubbed "Southern"). The populations least affected by these Neolithic migrants are modern-day North Europeans. Gok4 proves that those "southern"-shifted agricultarists then migrated into Northern Europe where they met the last hunter-gatherers and with whom they eventually mixed (thus diluting the "Southern" component).

- I do show about 1% of West Asian admixture which peaks in the Caucasus and the Middle East as well. The Basques show none. The French do show around 9%, Spaniards around 6% on average (it differs much : around 10% in Balearic Islands as opposed to a rather low 4% in Aragon and Cantabria), Sardinians less than 3%.

That migration, probably associated with the spreading of Indo-European languages, clearly is what differentiates Vasconic people from their European neighbours : Basque ethnogenesis is then a late Neolithic event (which doesn't mean anything about the origins of the Basque language).

Conclusion :

As a whole, I don't differ from Basque people : I am essentially a mix of old-stock European genes and "Southern " ones the origins of which can be debated but seem to date back from the early Neolithic. I also somehow show tiny bits of "West Asian" admixture which might hint to the fact Eastern Béarn was more opened to foreign influence than deep Basque valleys but my admixture remains marginal when compared to the average French results (9 times greater).

Saturday, July 7, 2012

El Ferrol : Galicia (Spain)

Galicia, northern Portugal, Asturias, western León, and Zamora formed a single megalithic area since the Neolithic and Chalcolithic (also called Copper Age) Ages, around 4500–1500 BCE. Historians believe that Megalithic culture had two sources: an oriental source that was predominant in the Mediterranean area, and one in the Atlantic, which originated north of the Tagus River. The latter, because of its geographical proximity to Galicia, would explain the abundant traces of megalithic culture in this area. That this should be the first great culture also meant that it constituted one of the basic pillars that was to endow Galicia's cultural personality.

At the end of the Iron Age, people from northwestern Iberian Peninsula conformed already a homogeneous cultural unity which differentiated themselves from others and which later would be identified by the early Greek and Latin authors, calling to this group of peoples with the name of Gallaeci (Galicians).

  • Sample :

Larger size

  • Brief anthropological analysis :

- Type 1 : Dark complexion, leptomorphic, gracile general features, narrow "horsy" face, long and narrow nose, high cheekbones, a rather broad jaw, close-set eyes (rather light on average), rather narrow eyelids
~ Nordo-Mediterranoid

I have already identified this leptomorphic "horsy" type in Western Iberia countless times, not taking pigmentation into account. I associate it strongly with Portugal. One can already notice the strong "Nordoid" trends in some individuals which are absolutely prevailing around Braga for instance.

The difference with other Portuguese or Galician samples so far is that this sample is rather on par with Asturian samples as far as brachy/lepto distribution is concerned : to sum up, following Alpinoid types are much more frequent than such "horsy" types.

- Type 2 : Dark complexion (dark hair but rather pale skin), brachymorphic, broad face, round features, short and broad nose, wide-set eyes, wide-spaced sloping and rather chinky eyes
~ Alpinoid

This type is abundantly found in Portuguese and adjacent NW Spanish areas : wide-spaced sloping eyes, a short broad nose and thick browridges are quite ethnic. Fairer individuals than usual are not rare as well.

Eventually, still rather brachymorphic, showing features identified on the previous individuals ("puffy" ones), are individuals which are some sort of combo of both ideal types. They might constitute an average Galician as proved by the morphotype.

  • Final morphotypes :

Monday, May 28, 2012

My Oracle results (Population Sharing)

I'll come back soon with new samples when I get time to upload them. For the moment, just a tiny gadget one can find on GEDmatch. The results obtained are rather interesting as it gives sharing distances with many populations plus it creates "ghosts" made of two populations which constitute a basic approximation of one's genomic characteristics.

The various algorithms don't possess the same populations, I used two of Dienekes' calculators : K12b and World9. Here are my results : check here to know about my Gascon/Pyrenean background.

- Oracle "Dienekes' K12b calculator" :

- Oracle "Dienekes' World9 calculator" :

- Comments :

1. Single Population Sharing :

The comparison of both results clearly proves something I had long anticipated : the French Basque sample from HGDP, the one used in most studies found on the Internet (including 23andme I believe), is pretty specific, quite aberrant actually and might be very inbred or quite isolated. The second study, with another French Basque sample, shows results one can expect : the French Basques are my second best match (with a distance of 2.87) after the Spanish Basques (at 2.53 : the difference is negligible).

Other results are pretty consistent : after the Basques, I share most with Aragonese people then Cantabrians. There is nothing strange about me - a Pyrenean Gascon guy - sharing high with (High) Aragonese people who are our neighbours and with whom we share the same "Vasconic" history. 

Cantabrians are more of a surprise : I had come to accept that they had long ceased to share the destiny of "Vasconian" people and some genetic results seemed to show they were more akin to people from Western Iberia (Galicia, North Portugal, ...). My anthropological amateurish research also had made me believe they were strandard Iberian-looking phycally wise, not that Basque-looking. Add that their "Celtic" substrate has long been over-emphasized. It looks like things are blurrier.

And then the usual populations : Catalan people (with whom Gascon people might share an ancient history as far as Y-DNA studies are concerned : quite probably Catalan people were then subject to subsequent migrations which differentiated them hence Iberian which appears to be a Basque-based pidgin) then other Iberians and the French ("French" is a stupid category : it doesn't mean anything, we really lack regional studies in the "Hexagone").

2. Mixed Mode Population Sharing :

The "ghosts" created by the first analyzis are rather interesting. They confirm that the French Basque sample from HGDP is very specific as I'm only about 60% French Basque (and 40% French) when compared to them (as I appeared on charts on 23andme). On the contrary, I'm about 87% "Spanish Basque" (the remainder being generally a far-away population which hints to the fact the algorithm doesn't really know what to do with what remains of my genetic variation). Other interesting ghosts is that I could be analyzed as being 63% French Basque and 37% Catalan which is quite on par with where I was born.

The "ghosts" created by the second calculator (with many global populations) are less interesting but maybe more accurate in a West Eurasian context : I happen to be mostly a Basque (either from Iberia or France) with greater admixture from the Levant (to whom the Kalash people are a proxy).

In all cases, I believe I may be differentiated from Basque people by the fact we, Béarnais people, may have received more influences from Neolithic migrations but not that much actually.

Thursday, April 19, 2012

Franciacorta : Lombardy (Italy)

Franciacorta extends from Mount Orfano (south of Rovato) on the southest area to the shores of Lake Iseo, and from the river Oglio on the western border to the town of Cellatica in the east.

The area has been inhabited since Paleolithic times, with archaeological records left by Gauls— the Cenomani of Brixia (modern Brescia), Romans and Lombards. The name Franciacorta, attested in 1277, is thought to derive from curtes francae, the fortified courts of the Frankish empire established in the 8th century.

Dark blue area

  • Sample :

Full scale

  • Brief anthropological analysis :

- Type 1 : Intermediate complexion, leptomorphic, narrow face, long and straight high-rooted nose that can get convex, close set eyes, large jaw, pointy chin
~ (Dinaromorphic) Nordo-Mediterranean

Unsurprisingly enough, the area exhibits more or less leptomorphic types which are pretty North Italian-looking (light eyes and hair, more or less convex nose, ...). Another darker series is more pan-Italian though facial length on women is a common trait in North Italy.

- Type 2 : Intermediate complexion, brachymorphic, square-box face, little low-rooted nose that can get snub-tipped, wide set eyes
~ Alpinoid

Brachymorphic types complete the usual North Italian panorama. Individuals showing very "ethnic" local features such as frizzy blonde hair, a big nose, light eyes can be found.

  • Final morphotypes :

Sunday, March 4, 2012

Las Encartaciones : Biscay (Spain)

West of Bilbao is one of the seven comarcas composing the Basque province of Biscay : the "Encartaciones". Contrary to the remainder of Biscay, the area has been traditionally Romance-speaking for centuries.

  • Sample :
Full scale

  • Brief anthropological analysis :

- Type 1 : Dark, leptomorphic, long and triangular head, long and straight nose, close-set eyes, full eyebrows, pointy chin and large jaw
~ (Dinaromorphic) Atlanto-Mediterranean

Those people don't look Basque, more like classical Iberian. Another series show more Basque afinities to my eyes (strong dinaromorphism, frequency of green/grey eyes, ...) though it's quite variable.

- Type 2 : Intermediate complexion, brachymorphic, large face, square-box head head, little and straight nose, rather distanced eyes, little eyelids, large jaw
~ Alpinoid

Though brachymorphic types are not absent from Basque lands, these people are not Basque-looking to my eyes and are similar to neighbouring Cantabrian people.

  • Final morphotypes :

Saturday, March 3, 2012

Las Merindades : Old Castile (Spain)

North of the Ebro river and inbetween Cantabria and Basque lands is the heart of Old Castile, formerly inhabited by the Autrigones.

  • Sample :
Full scale

  • Brief anthropological analysis :

- Type 1 : Dark, leptomorphic, long and triangular head, long and straight nose, close-set eyes, full eyebrows, pointy chin and large jaw
~ (Dinaromorphic) Atlanto-Mediterranean

Unsurprisingly enough, the main type found in the area is a classical North Iberian type that now and then shows similarities with archetypal Basque types without being exactly similar (dinaromorphism being the main common trait).

- Type 2 : Intermediate complexion, brachymorphic, large face, square-box head head, little and straight nose, rather distanced eyes, little eyelids, large jaw
~ Alpinoid

Stocky brahyorphic types do look rather pan-Iberian.

  • Final morphotypes :