Wednesday, December 29, 2010

Rethymno : Crete (Greece)

This region as a whole is rich with ancient history, most notably through the Minoan civilization centred at Kydonia east of Rethymno. The Minoan civilization was a Bronze Age civilization that arose on the island of Crete and flourished from approximately the 27th century BC to the 15th century BC. The early inhabitants of Crete settled as early as 128,000 BC, during the Middle Paleolithic age. However it was not until 5000 BC that the first signs of advanced agriculture appeared, marking the beginning of the civilization.



  • Sample :

Full scale

  • Brief anthropological analysis :

- Type 1 :
Dark complexion (black hair, ...), brachymorphic, large face, square-box head, rather bulbous forehead, puffy and little nose mostly on males, close-set eyes, large jaw
~ Alpino-Mediterranean




This is a classical pan-Greek type which somehow shows affinities with the Levant. For possible comparisons, see Anthroplanet as I update it with neighbouring non-European areas.



- Type 2 : Dark complexion (dark hair yet pale skin), dark eyes, leptomorphic, narrow and angular face, long and arched high-rooted nose, close set eyes, large jaw, pointy chin
~ (Dinaromorphic) Eastern-Mediterranean




This is another classical Greek phenotype : as usual in Greek lands, one can notice a strange complexion dimorphism with women mostly falling in a noticeable lighter category (aqua-blue eyes, pale skin, ...). "Lighter" men somehow don't exhibit the very striking ethnic features of their female counterparts.




  • Final morphotypes :

Tuesday, December 28, 2010

L'Aquila : Abruzzo (Italy)

Amiternum, a traditional cradle of the Sabines, is an ancient Sabine prefecture in the Abruzzo region of modern Italy at 9 km from L'Aquila. The modern province correspounds to the mountainous part of Abruzzo.

The Sabine language is scantily attested, mainly by explicit glosses written by ancient commentators on classical authors and inscriptions, The commentator gives an alternative word he says is the Sabine. In recent times one or possibly two Sabine inscriptions have been tentatively identified. Based on all the evidence the Linguist List classifies Sabine, again tentatively, as a member of the Umbrian Group of Italic languages of Indo-European family.




  • Sample :

Full scale


  • Brief anthropological analysis :

- Type 1 : Dark complexion, dark eyes, leptomorphic, narrow face, long and straight high-rooted nose that can get convex, close set eyes, large jaw, pointy chin
~ Dinaromorphic Mediterranean




This is a classical pan-Italian type, this time though one can notice some peculiar secondary local traits such as a rather narrow droopy-tipped nose or a rather angular chin. Still exhibiting such local features, more brachymorphic individuals are found.






- Type 2 : Intermediate complexion (chestnut hair, blue eyes, ...), brachymorphic, round face, little and low-rooted nose that can get snub-tipped, wide set eyes
~ Alpinoid/Subnordid





This is a rather original phenotype from an Italian point of view, not that these people are not Italian-looking, but such phenotypes are not expected in South Central Italy as far as stereotypes are concerned. I've still to define a geographic extension for such types.


  • Final morphotypes :

Valencia : Valencian Community (Spain)

From the Eneolithic (2000 BC) until the Roman conquest of Iberia, Valencia was populated by Iberians, more precisely by the Edetani who throughout this long period were influenced by Phoenician cultures and Greek settlers on the coast. It is quite probable that the modern extension of the Catalan language into the province emulates the former extension of the Edutani.

In Liria, Iberian inscriptions were found which have recently resurrected the old theories of basco-iberism : see this linguistic analysis by French-Galician linguist Hector Iglesias (L’inscription ibérique de San Miguel de Liria et le basco-ibérisme en général).



Catalan-speaking areas




  • Sample :

Full scale



  • Brief anthropological analysis :

- Type 1 : Dark complexion (dark hair, ... but there are light individuals), leptomorphic, long face (particularly on males), straight or convex nose rather parallel to the face, rather close-set eyes, high cheekbones, pointy chin, large jaw
~ (Dinaricized) Atlanto-Mediterranean




This is a very classical pan-Iberian type even though these individuals somehow show strong Catalan affinities when it comes to analyze secondary features such as a rather larger face than usual and more generally a mix of robustness and puffier features. Extreme robust types are illustrated by some males.



Lighter large-faced and dinaromorphic variants are found which are also rather Catalan-looking, nearly Pyrenean (high cheekbones are quite stunning).




Eventually, this Mediterranean-dominated sample also exhibits more classical Mediterranean individuals lacking peculiar ethnic traits but still very typical.




- Type 2 : Intermediate complexion (from dark to chestnut hair, from black to green/blue eyes, ...), more or less brachymorphic, reduced and "puffy" features, in some cases high-headed, rather puffy nose, strong jaw, close-set eyes
~ (Alpino-)Mediterranean




Such division is a bit artificial : those individuals also mostly fall within the Mediterranean spectrum as they don't strikingly exhibit traits associated with Alpinid types. Strong and robust brachymorphic Catalan types are absent from this sample which is very gracile on average. Nevertheless, a female series show more distant eyes, little noses, ... It doesn't really possess male counterparts.




  • Final morphotypes :

Wednesday, December 15, 2010

Zeeland : Zuid-Nederland (The Netherlands)

The province of Zeeland is a large river delta situated at the mouth of several major rivers. Most of the province lies below sea level and was reclaimed from the sea by inhabitants over time. It used to be the Roman Empire's northernmost border and the ethnic affiliation of local Menapii still is unclear.

Nehalennia is a goddess of the ancient religion known around the province of Zeeland. Her worship dates back at least to the 2nd century BC, and flourished in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD. She was possibly a regional goddess, either Celtic or pre-Germanic – sources differ on the culture that first worshipped her. During the Roman Era, her main function appeared to be the protection of travelers, especially seagoing travelers crossing the North Sea.




  • Sample :

Full scale


  • Brief anthropological analysis :

- Type 1 :
Light complexion (medium light hair, light eyes, ...), brachymorphic, general robust features, squared-box face, high and broad forehead, little and broad nose that can get concave, deep jaw, wide-set eyes
~ Borreby




A very common type in Northern Europe, it is well representated in this area but not as much as ancient studies could make us believe (Zeeland is allegedly the Netherlands' most brachycephalic area). A variant of this type - noted for a convex nose and more leptomorphism - can be found as well with some leptomorphic individuals announcing Nordid types.





- Type 2 :
Light complexion (blonde hair with ash-blonde shades, ...), leptomorphic, general robust features, high forehead, convex nose, large and strong jaw, pointy chin, close-set eyes
~ (Dinaricized) Nordid





Those dinaromorphic individuals remind us of the infamous "horsy" phenotype found in Dutch-speaking Belgium. Women tend to be much less impressive than their male counterparts. Darker types are very Belgian-looking and tend to be rarer as one progresses northwards : some peculiar secondary features include full lips, rather distant eyes, ...





  • Final morphotypes :