Thursday, November 25, 2010

North Karelia : Karelia (Finland)

The ethnic structure of Karelia at the end of the first millennium consisted of Finno-Ugrian tribes. The Finnish Karelians are considered as a regional and cultural sub-group of the ethnic Finns. They speak the eastern or south-eastern dialects of the Finnish language.




  • Sample :

Full scale


  • Brief anthropological analysis :

- Type 1 : Light complexion (blonde hair with ash-blonde shades, sometimes red shades, ...), leptomorphic, general robust features, high forehead, long and straight nose, large jaw, close-set eyes
~ Nordoid




This type, inbetween classical Trønder and East-Nordid types as identified by many authors, is quite typical from NE Europe. This local variant is very robust though and can get quite large-faced. It's also virtually absent from women. Some individuals are rather Finnish-looking because of some distinct features (a braoder nose, high cheekbones, full lips, slanted eyes, ...). "Darker"-featured individuals of some sort are found as well.





- Type 2 : Light complexion (medium light hair with ash-blonde shades, light eyes, ...), brachymorphic, general robust features, squared-box face, high and broad forehead, little and broad nose that can get concave, deep jaw, wide-set - sometimes slanted - eyes
~ Baltid/Lappoid




While some individuals - mostly females - seem to be part of a pretty genetic Northern European variation, other individuals exhibit more striking features seldom seen elsewhere in Europe such as pseudo-slanted eyes. Such features may be more obvious on the following darker-featured individuals : it might hint to a slight actual Asian admixture.





  • Final morphotypes :

Monday, November 22, 2010

Volyn : Volhynia (Ukraine)

The Kievan Rus' were founded by the Rus' people, Varangians who first settled around Ladoga and Novgorod, then gradually moved southward eventually reaching Kiev about 880. The Kievan Rus' included the western part of modern Ukraine, Belarus, with larger part of it situated on the territory of modern Russia. According to the Primary Chronicle the Rus' elite initially consisted of Varangians from Scandinavia.

Volhynia is a historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Prypiat and Western Bug, to the north of Galicia and Podolia. The area has some of the oldest Slavic settlements in Europe. The modern Volyn oblast is made of parts of ancient Volhynia : its capital is Lutsk.



  • Sample :

Full scale


  • Brief anthropological analysis :

- Type 1 :
Light complexion (blonde or red hair, light eyes, ...), leptomorphic, rather leptoprosopic, narrow eyes, long and narrow straight nose, high forehead, large jaw, pointy chin, full lips
~ East Nordid




This well-identified type is common in West Russia and NE Europe : darker types are found as well which have been called "Pontid" by many anthropologists or 'Pontid-Mediterranid" though these people only share a vague ressemblance with Mediterranid types from Western Europe. These dark "East Nordid" types have long been associated with Ukraine.





- Type 2 : Light complexion (from medium dark-brown to blonde hair, blue eyes), brachymorphic, large square-box head, little and distanced oblique eyes, low orbits, broad and rather straight or concave nose, weak browridges, large fronthead, large jaw, receding chin
~ Alpinoid/Baltid




This is a very common type in Eastern Europe. These Ukrainians types might be characterized by a relative abundance of rather convex noses.


  • Final morphotypes :

Sunday, November 21, 2010

Durrës (Albania)

Durrës was founded as Epidamnos in the ancient region of Illyria in 627 BC by ancient Greek colonists from Corinth and Corcyra. The general vicinity of Epidamus was called Epidamnia. Very little is known about the Illyrians, though a number of them are assumed to have been united by a common Illyrian language. "Illyria" might just be a designation of a roughly defined region of the western Balkans as seen from a Roman perspective, just as Magna Germania is a rough geographic term not delineated by any linguistic or ethnic unity.





  • Sample :

Full scale


  • Brief anthropological analysis :

- Type 1 : Intermediate complexion (pale skin color, grey/green eyes, chestnut hair, ...), leptomorphic, long face, probably brachycephalic, narrow eyes, long and narrow arched nose, rather receding forehead, lop ears, pointy chin
~ Dinarid





This type is common in the Balkans, : it might constitute a basic "Illyrian" phenotype. Still, these Albanian types are noted for a strong leptoprosopy, at least when it comes to males. A more robust square-jawed variant is found as well :





Type 2 : Intermediate complexion, brachymorphic, large head, little and sometimes distanced oblique eyes, low orbits, low-rooted and rather broad nose, weak browridges, large jaw
~ Alpinoid/Gorid




This type is quite original in its rather extreme character and was absent from Korçë which exhibited more classical individuals. Some individuals would fit well in the Caucasus for instance.


  • Final morphotypes :

Saturday, November 6, 2010

León : Castile and León (Spain)

The city of León was founded by the Roman Seventh Legion (usually written as Legio Septima Gemina ("twin seventh legion"). It was the headquarters of that legion in the late empire and was a centre for trade in gold, which was mined at Las Médulas nearby. In 540, the city was conquered by the Arian Visigothic king Liuvigild, who did not harass the already well-established Roman Catholic population. In 717 AD, León fell again, this time to the Moors. However, León was one of the first cities retaken during the Christian reconquest of the Iberian peninsula, and became part of the Kingdom of Asturias in 742 AD.





  • Sample :

Full scale



  • Brief anthropological analysis :

- Type 1 : Dark complexion (dark hair, ... but there are light individuals), leptomorphic, long face (particularly on males), straight or convex nose rather parallel to the face, rather close-set eyes, high cheekbones, pointy chin, large jaw
~ (Dinaricized) Atlanto-Mediterranean




A pan-Iberian type, these individuals nevertheless may show affinities with NW Iberia (Galicia, Asturias, ...) when it comes to secondary features such as the eye region (rather "slanted" eyes on some individuals, big eyebrows, ...) or a general "horsy" silhouette very common in North Portugal for instance. More robust and lighter males are found as well.



- Type 2 : Intermediate complexion (from dark to chestnut hair, from black to green/blue eyes, ...), more or less brachymorphic, reduced and "puffy" features, in some cases high-headed, rather little nose (on males at least), strong jaw, close-set eyes
~ Alpino-Mediterranean




Like in neighbouring Luarca, square-shaped variants are quite typical even though they are not as dominant in this sample as they are in Asturian lands. On average, those individuals' complexion is also darker than the Asturians' one (wich showed a strong presence of green/blue eyes, chestnut hair, ...). León is more on par with a classical pan-Iberian variation lacking Asturian puffy features. Let's add that eventually dark dinaromorphic Alpino-Med types are found : in transition with the first type, they are also pan-Iberian.




  • Final morphotypes :