Sunday, September 26, 2010

Palencia : Castile and León (Spain)

The fortified Celtiberian settlement is mentioned as Pallantia (Παλλαντία) by Strabo and Ptolemy, a version possibly of the Celtic root pala ("plain"). It was the chief town of the Vaccaei, although Strabo wrongly assigns it to the Arevaci. The city was starved into submission by the Romans in the second century BCE and incorporated into the province of Hispania Tarraconensis, in the jurisdiction of Colonia Clunia Sulpicia (modern Clunia).




  • Sample :


Full scale


  • Brief anthropological analysis :

- Type 1 : Intermediate complexion (from blonde to dark hair, black eyes, rather pale skin on average, ...), leptomorphic, long face (particularly on males), straight or convex nose, close-set eyes, pointy chin, large jaw
~ (Dinaricized) Atlanto-Mediterranean




This is a very classical Iberian type found throughout the whole peninsula that one could dub "conquistador-looking". A previously identified variant characterized by blue eyes and blondish/reddish undertones as noted in Rioja, Soria or Burgos is rarer here. More classical and larger-faced (Alpino-?)Mediterranoids are found as well. Square jaws seem to be rather widely distributed throughout Old Castile.





- Type 2 : Dark complexion (dark hair, black eyes, ...), more or less brachymorphic, reduced and "puffy" features, square-box head, large nose, strong jaw, rather distanced eyes
~ Alpinoid




This type already was already identified in Rioja or Burgos as well and is rather pan-Iberian. Some individuals would fit a "Berid" description.


  • Final morphotypes :

Friday, September 24, 2010

Vidin : Montana (Bulgaria)

There are around 80 caves situated close to the border with Serbia, the most famous being the Magura Cave, which known with its cave painting from 10,000 BC. Vidin emerged at the place of an old Celtic settlement known as Dunonia. The name itself meant "fortified hill" with the typically Celtic dun found frequently in Celtic place names. The settlement evolved into an Roman fortified town called Bononia. The town grew into one of the important centres of the province of Upper Moesia, encompassing the territory of modern northwestern Bulgaria and eastern Serbia. Roman rule lasted until 46 AD.

When Slavs settled in the area, they called the town Badin or Bdin, where the modern name comes from.



  • Sample :

Full scale


  • Brief anthropological analysis :

- Type 1 : Rather dark complexion (from dark to medium blonde hair), brachymorphic, large head, little and distanced oblique eyes, low orbits, broad and straight nose, full lips, weak browridges, large jaw, receding chin
~ Alpinid/Gorid




This is a very common type amongst South Slavs and their neighbours. More leptomorphic and Mediterranoid individuals are found as well.





- Type 2 : Intermediate complexion (pale skin color, grey/green eyes, chestnut hair, ...), more or less leptomorphic, long face, probably brachycephalic, narrow eyes, long and arched nose, rather low and receding forehead
~ Dinarid




That is a very common type in the Balkans already identified in other South Slavic lands such as Pelagonia.

  • Final morphotypes :

Monday, September 20, 2010

Luarca : Asturias (Spain)

Asturias has been occupied by humans since the Lower Paleolithic era, and during the Upper Paleolithic was characterized by cave paintings in the eastern part of the area. In the Mesolithic period, a native culture developed, that of the Asturiense, and later, with the introduction of the Bronze Age, megaliths and tumuli were constructed. In the Iron Age, the territory came under the cultural influence of the Celts; the local Celtic peoples, known as the Astures, were composed of tribes such as the Luggones, the Pesicos, and others, who populated the entire area with castros (fortified hill-towns).






  • Sample :


Full scale



  • Brief anthropological analysis :

- Type 1 : Dark complexion (dark hair, ... but light eyes are frequent), leptomorphic, long face (particularly on males), straight or convex nose rather parallel to the face, rather close-set eyes, high cheekbones, pointy chin, large jaw
~ (Dinaricized) Atlanto-Mediterranean




A pan-Iberian type, these individuals nevertheless show affinities with NW Iberia (Galicia, Asturias, ...) when it comes to secondary features such as the eye region (rather "slanted" eyes on some individuals, big eyebrows, ...).


- Type 2 : Intermediate complexion (from dark to chestnut hair, from black to green/blue eyes, ...), more or less brachymorphic, reduced and "puffy" features, in some cases high-headed, rather little nose (on males at least), strong jaw, close-set eyes
~ Alpino-Mediterranean




Square-shaped variants are quite typical and dominant in this sample. On average, those individuals' complexion is lighter (green/blue eyes, chestnut hair, ...).


  • Final morphotypes :

Sunday, September 19, 2010

Clare : Munster (Ireland)

There was a Neolithic civilisation in the Clare area — the name of the peoples is unknown, but the Prehistoric peoples left evidence behind in the form of ancient dolmen; single-chamber megalithic tombs, usually consisting of three or more upright stones. Clare is one of the richest places for these tombs in Ireland, the most noted is in The Burren area, it is known as Poulnabrone dolmen which translates as the hole of sorrows. The remains of the people inside the tomb have been excavated and dated to 3800 BC.

Within his map Ptolemy names the Gaelic tribes inhabiting it and the areas in which they resided; in the area of Clare he identified a tribe known as the Gangani. Historians have found the tribes on the west of Ireland hardest to identify with known peoples, however Camden and O'Conor speculated a possible connection between the Gangani and the Concani, one of the eleven tribes in the confederacy of the Cantabri in the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula.





  • Sample :

Full scale


  • Brief anthropological analysis :

- Type 1 : Light complexion (pinky undertones, light blue eyes, blonde hair, ...), leptomorphic, long and convex nose rather parallel to the face, high cheekbones, close-set eyes, rather angular and pointy chin, large jaw
~ Dinaricized Atlantid aka "Keltic Nordic"




This type constitutes a basic "Celtic" insular phenotype : it is not as prevailing as in other Irish counties. Let's add that people belonging to that type are somehow darker on average as well. People from County Clare rather belong to a less leptoprosopic variant (read : larger-faced).




Eventually, some "Atlantid" individuals do show some strong Irish features that are also common on people belonging to Type 2 : defined lines around the oral cavity, a large nose, a deep and clefted lower jaw.




- Type 2 : Intermediate complexion (light skin, light eyes, ...), brachymorphic (yet probably mesocephalic), chubby features, rather low-rooted and little broad nose that can get convex, wide forehead, large and strong jaws, prominent chin, wide-set eyes
~ Brünn




Many individuals do exhibit a typical Irish flavour as well : defined lines around the oral cavity, a large nose, a deep lower jaw, a high forehead, that could be found on individuals belonging to Type 1 which really makes me wonder whether or not classification is that interesting as ethnic traits can be found on all types of individuals.


  • Final morphotypes :

Saturday, September 18, 2010

East Tyrol : Tyrol (Austria)

Archaeological findings show people settled in the middle alpine region, later to be called Tyrol, when the glaciers retreated and flora and fauna revived, after the last ice age ended around 12,000 BC.

East Tyrol (German:
Osttirol), is an exclave of the Austrian state of Tyrol, sharing no border with the main North Tyrol part of the state. The area around the former Roman municipium of Aguntum was from the 12th century held by the Counts of Gorizia, who took their residence at Lienz and inherited the County of Tyrol in 1253.







  • Sample :

Full scale


  • Brief anthropological analysis :

- Type 1 : Light, brachymorphic, short and large yet straight nose, square-faced, broad forehead, wide-set eyes, large jaw
~ Alpinoid/Subnordid




This type seems to be quite widespread in the whole Alps, more particularly throughout the German-speaking areas. Some individuals do approach "Nordic" metrics but somehow lack the sharper features found in Type 2 and are characterized by a high forehead.




- Type 2 : Intermediate complexion, more or less brachymorphic, a rather large face on some individuals, convex nose, high cheekbones, close-set eyes, large jaw
~ Dinaromorphic Nordid




All these types were already identified in neighbouring South Tyrol. A darker series can be found as well.




  • Final morphotypes :