The Arabs occupied almost all of Castile in the eighth century, though only for a brief period, and left little if any trace of their occupation. Alfonso III the Great, king of León reconquered it about the middle of the ninth century, and built several castles for the defence of Christendom, which was then extended through the reconquest of lost territory. The region came to be known as Castile (Latin castella), i.e. "land of castles".
- Sample :
- Brief anthropological analysis :
- Type 1 : Intermediate complexion (from blonde to dark hair, black eyes, rather pale skin on average, ...), leptomorphic, long face (particularly on males), straight or convex nose, close-set eyes, pointy chin, large jaw
~ (Dinaricized) Atlanto-Mediterranean
This is a very classical Iberian type found throughout the whole peninsula. A variant characterized by blue eyes and blondish undertones might be more specifically northern Iberian and was already identified in Rioja and Pamplona.
- Type 2 : Dark complexion (dark hair, black eyes, ...), more or less brachymorphic, reduced and "puffy" features, square-box head, large nose, strong jaw, rather distanced eyes
~ Dinaricized Alpino-Mediterranean
Esssentially a very robust variant of Type 1, it seems to be quite widespread in northern Iberia (Asturias, Cantabria, Rioja, ...). Similar types were already encountered in Guipúzcoa. It's absent in Zamora, which might hint to a distinction between true Castile around Burgos and Leonese areas (which are in a Portuguese variation IMO).
Eventually, more classical Alpino-Mediterranean types are found.
- Final morphotypes :