Saturday, April 26, 2014

Montes de Oca : Old Castile (Spain)

Montes de Oca is a mountainous comarca situated east of Burgos in Northern Spain.




  • Sample :
Full size
  • Analysis :
  - Brachy type :  such types are rather dominant in that sample like in the Ebro valley. Curiously enough, women don't look as "reduced" as their male counterparts. Most women show strong features (chin, ...) which make the division between two types artificial.



- Lepto type : none of these individuals exhibit striking Basque features (triangle-shaped face, long convex nose, grey eyes), they look standard Iberian. Women exhibit strong features (chin, ...).



  • Morphotypes :
 

Wednesday, December 25, 2013

My Eurogenes K15 results

For more information about Polako's tool :

Eurogenes K15 now at GEDmatch

 

 - Admix Results (sorted) :

#PopulationPercent
1 Atlantic 36.45
2 West_Med 22.18
3 North_Sea 18.29
4 Baltic 10.14
5 East_Med 8.70
6 Eastern_Euro 2.23
7 Red_Sea 1.01
8 Amerindian 1.00

Too many components to be honest, the only studies in which I'm interested are those that divide one's genomes into components which really amount for a true migratory wave (for instance, hunter-gatherer vs farmer).

To compare with : Population averages


 - Oracle results  :

a) Using 1 population approximation :


1 Southwest_French @ 5.588
2 Spanish_Aragon @ 6.086
3 Spanish_Valencia @ 6.877
4 Spanish_Cantabria @ 7.812
5 Spanish_Castilla_La_Mancha @ 7.914
6 Spanish_Castilla_Y_Leon @ 8.905
7 Spanish_Andalucia @ 9.086
8 Spanish_Cataluna @ 9.362
9 Spanish_Murcia @ 9.956
10 Spanish_Extremadura @ 11.328

The novelty is that Polako has included a sample from SW France that I suppose originates from a 2012 study which included Gascon samples from Bigorre, Béarn and Chalosse.

Pre-Roman genetic structure has persisted in modern Basque populations

Unsurprisingly enough, my best Oracle guess are my fellow SW French people that should precisely be dubbed Gascon as we have yet to see Languedocian samples for instance.

Then the usual Iberians, in a somehow similar order from Dienekes' project : Cantabrians, Aragonese people and Valencians.

Polako's Eurogenes K15 project doesn't include Spanish Basques : they were my best guesses in DODECAD K12 runs.

It is being confirmed the classical French Basque sample used by most studies and also used by Polako is very specific, maybe inbred as my distance seems to be quite important to them, not even in the top 10.

 

b) Using 2 populations approximation :


1 50% Southwest_French +50% Spanish_Aragon @ 5.231
2 50% Southwest_French +50% Spanish_Valencia @ 5.463
3 50% Southwest_French +50% Southwest_French @ 5.588
4 50% French_Basque +50% Spanish_Castilla_Y_Leon @ 5.769
5 50% French_Basque +50% Spanish_Cataluna @ 5.813
6 50% Spanish_Aragon +50% Spanish_Aragon @ 6.086
7 50% Southwest_French +50% Spanish_Castilla_La_Mancha @ 6.156
8 50% French_Basque +50% Spanish_Murcia @ 6.200
9 50% Spanish_Aragon +50% Spanish_Valencia @ 6.200
10 50% French_Basque +50% Portuguese @ 6.245

The French Basque sample appears once the algorithm is forced into finding another sample to decypher me.

 
c) Using 4 populations approximation :

1 French_Basque + Southwest_French + Spanish_Castilla_Y_Leon + Spanish_Valencia @ 4.854
2 French_Basque + Southwest_French + Spanish_Valencia + Spanish_Valencia @ 4.940
3 French_Basque + Southwest_French + Spanish_Cataluna + Spanish_Valencia @ 4.954
4 French_Basque + Southwest_French + Southwest_French + Spanish_Castilla_Y_Leon @ 4.984
5 French_Basque + Southwest_French + Southwest_French + Spanish_Valencia @ 5.004
6 French_Basque + Southwest_French + Southwest_French + Spanish_Murcia @ 5.078
7 French_Basque + Southwest_French + Southwest_French + Spanish_Cataluna @ 5.086
8 French_Basque + Southwest_French + Spanish_Aragon + Spanish_Castilla_Y_Leon @ 5.111
9 French_Basque + Southwest_French + Spanish_Castilla_Y_Leon + Spanish_Castilla_Y_Leon @ 5.140
10 French_Basque + Southwest_French + Spanish_Murcia + Spanish_Valencia @ 5.145
11 French_Basque + Southwest_French + Spanish_Aragon + Spanish_Cataluna @ 5.163
12 French_Basque + Southwest_French + Spanish_Castilla_Y_Leon + Spanish_Cataluna @ 5.188
13 French_Basque + Spanish_Castilla_Y_Leon + Spanish_Valencia + Spanish_Valencia @ 5.196
14 French_Basque + Southwest_French + Spanish_Aragon + Spanish_Valencia @ 5.212
15 Southwest_French + Southwest_French + Spanish_Aragon + Spanish_Aragon @ 5.231
16 French_Basque + Southwest_French + Spanish_Andalucia + Spanish_Castilla_Y_Leon @ 5.250
17 Southwest_French + Southwest_French + Southwest_French + Spanish_Aragon @ 5.254
18 Southwest_French + Southwest_French + Spanish_Aragon + Spanish_Valencia @ 5.261
19 French_Basque + Spanish_Cataluna + Spanish_Valencia + Spanish_Valencia @ 5.284
20 French_Basque + Southwest_French + Spanish_Andalucia + Spanish_Cataluna @ 5.285

A side note on "Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans"

You might have read the newest article about the peopling of Europe.


New data has emerged : unsurprisingly enough, a Neolithic farmer from Stuttgart clusters with other Neolithic farmers (Otzi and so on) whereas a Mesolithic hunter-gatherer from modern-day Luxembourg clusters with La Braña samples in Iberia, from Mesolithic times as well.

Figure B

We now know that modern-day Europeans were born from the mixing of aboriginal hunter-gatherers and farmers coming from the Levant. The novelty of this article is that the authors believe a third layer is to be identified that they dub "Ancient North Eurasians" : the mixing may have appeared prior to the arrival of farmers.

I'm not competent enough on that issue to tell you whether they are right or not.I don't doubt ancient hunter-gatherers mixed with Siberians but I'm rather clueless about everything else.

What triggered my curiosity was the presence of a "French_South" sample popping for the first time in an official scientific study.

I checked in tthe supplementary information : that sample is made of 7 individuals (Lat : 43.4 Long : -0.6) and the source is : David Comas. Well, that's Béarn for you, my home area.

It explains the ADMIXTURE results quite well and why those "southern French" individuals appear to be so similar to Basque people (lacking in the yellow component at its maximum in the Caucasus). I believe dubbing such specific sample "French_South" is thus quite misleading.





Saturday, September 28, 2013

Salvatierra : Álava (Euskadi)

Álava gradually lost the use of the Basque language with only some parishes in contact with Biscay keeping the old language as of today. The tiniest Basque province, Álava has always been a bit more opened to foreign influences because of the Ebro valley than other Basque areas.


  • Sample :

Full size
  •  Analysis :

- Lepto type : triangle-shaped face, long convex nose, grey eyes are the most striking features. 

 


 
Those people look Basque. Some other people, still rather leptomorphic, are transitional with mainstream Spanish types as expected for this area : I found such people in La Rioja for instance.




- Brachy type : truly (male) brachy types are absent from this sample contrary to my Alavan sample in the Ebro valley. IMO, it clearly means the Ebro valley saw more mixing than in Salvatierra which retains obvious Basque pecularities.



  • Morphotypes :

Sunday, August 4, 2013

Korčula : Dalmatia (Croatia)

The island was first settled by Mesolithic and Neolithic peoples. There is archaeological evidence at the sites of Vela Spila (Big Cave) and at Jakas Cave near the village of Zrnovo. The finds of Vela Spila are on display at the Center for Culture in Vela Luka. The fate of these peoples is not know but the sites do provide a window into their way of life.

The second wave of human settlement was by Illyrians. It is believed that the Illyrians arrived in Balkans approximately 1000 BC.They were semi-nomadic tribal people living from agriculture. There are numerous old stone buildings and fortresses (gradine) left behind by the Illyrians.

The Great Migrations of the 6th and 7th centuries brought Slavic and Avar invasions into this region. As the so-called barbarians began settling on the coast, the Romanised local coastal population had to take refuge on the islands. Along the Dalmatian coast the Croatian Slavic peoples poured out of the interior and seized control of the area where the Neretva River enters the Adriatic, as well as the island of Korčula (Corcyra),which protects the river mouth.



  • Sample :

Full size
  •  Analyzis :

- Lepto type : rather long "horse-like" face, long and straight but not convex nose, variable complexion (from fair to dark)

This is one of the two main Yugoslav types : darker types might be more associated with people from Serbia in popular culture - particularly when it comes to women - but they are actually as frequent in Croatia as in Serbia.








- Brachy type : robust general "cromagnoid" features, puffy nose, rather fair complexion (light eyes, "pinkish" skin)

I had already identified such types in coastal Slovenia and in Slovene-speaking areas of Italy : to my eyes, it is a peculiar local South Slavic coastal type that clearly exhibits a distinct eastern flavour, or at least non-Med tendency.

Consistent genetic samples of the various Balkanic ethnicities cannot be found yet I'm quite persuaded Slavic migrations had a strong impact in the Balkans and that somehow Slavic-speaking Balkans constitute a discontinuity inbetween NE Italy and Albania. At least, Slovene people were proved to be closer to Austrians than to Italians.

My own personal theory is that autochtonous Illyrian people mixed with Slavic invadors (coming from an area around modern-day Poland ?) and thus their genepool was modified with Neolithic/Med influences being lowered.






  • Morphotypes :


Sunday, July 28, 2013

Manacor : Balearic Islands (Spain)

Manacor is the capital of Llevant (Catalan for "East"), a comarca on the east side of the Balearic island of Majorca.

 
 

  • Sample :

Full size
  • Analyzis :

- Lepto type : long "horse-like" face, big convex nose, frequent light eyes, variable complexion.

To my eyes, this type is part of a East Pyrenean/Iberian variation quite dominant in Catalan-speaking areas as well as in neighbouring Aragon (where it gets transitional with West Pyrenean types).

I suppose those people could also be told to be Ligurian-looking as many North Italian types approach such people.



 


 


- Brachy type : rather puffy general features, little nose, narrow eyelids, distant eyes, variable complexion.

Those people remind me of mainstream Iberian types which are quite widespread in the peninsula. One has to notice that unsurprisingly enough, women fall in the brachy category.

Most of these people lack a decisive robust Catalan-looking character that brachy types in Catalonia possess (see my Catalan samples for an illustration) but rather remind me of people I identified in the Ebro valley (the "puffier" ones) : I dare state that the following people may illustrate a stronger Neolithic affinity in Balearic islands as proved by genetic data.

When using Dienekes' world 9 calculator, Balearic people's results are the following ones : one of the lowest scores for Atlantic/Baltic admixture (a proxy for aboriginal European) in Spain, a quite normal score for Southern admixture and one of the highest results for Caucasian admixture (a proxy for later Bronze Age migrations as far as I guess).

#PopulationPercent
1Atlantic_Baltic60.50
2Southern28.20
3Caucasus_Gedrosia9.70




 


  • Morphotypes :